In Geography, we respond to questions by following the procedural knowledge. Procedural knowledge is the knowledge you use when performing a task; it's how you know how to do something. The procedural knowledge for speaking and writing like a Geographer is as follows:


1. Define the geographical terms in the question. Always write as though you are speaking/writing to a novice. 

2. Use the wording from the question to make a point.

3. Define the geographical terms in your point.

4. Apply real life geography - give examples of places, dates, facts etc.

4. Explain in great detail. Ask yourself "what does that cause?" "how does that answer the question?" "What's the effect of that?" after every sentence you write. An explanation in great detail should introduce more geographical vocabulary and be at least three sentences long.

5. Conclude each paragraph by linking your answer back to the question and introduce other ideas, but don't explain them. 


Explain the formation of headlands and bays and how they change over time.

A headland is a cliff made of hard rock that juts out to sea whilst a bay is a crescent shaped indentation in the land found between two headlands. Headlands and bays are formed on dicordant coastlines with differential erosion. A discordant coastline is made up of alternating bands of soft and hard rock. The hard rock is more resistant to erosion such as hydraulic action and abrasion but the soft rock is not. Soft rock is eroded faster because the forward surge of water forces air in to cracks, when the water retreats the air is released causing a small explosive effect; this is known as hydraulic action. Additionally, eroded sediment carried by the sea is hurled at the cliff face which chips away bits of rock; this is known as abrasion. The bay retreats further inland than the headlands either side of it. Over time headlands will erode in to caves, arches and isolated stacks whereas bays will fill up with sand forming beaches. 


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Evaluate the success of the reforms that China's leaders implemented in 1979.

China implemented many reforms in 1979 including the one-child policy, allowing people to start commercial farming, encouraging the establishment of free enterprise businesses and limiting their environmental laws to attract transnational corporations; a company that operates in more than one country.


To a large extent, allowing individuals to set up free enterprise businesses meant that China increased its gross national income (GNI). A free enterprise business is a business where the individual decides what is produced or sold, the price of the goods or service and keeps the profit. Today, 60% of China’s gross domestic product comes from the private sector – where free enterprise business bought services such as industry and transport previously owned by the government. The government benefits from this because the more money made by the FEBs the higher the tax tariff (this is the same for employees). This increases the government income and means more money is available for development projects such as improving education and healthcare. This would increase literacy rates and life expectancy. However, some FEBs set their prices too high which could affect individuals and lead to an increase in poverty again.


Additionally, the limiting of environmental laws in 1979 attracted many TNCs to south-east China where the population is dense. A TNC is a transnational corporation; a company that operates in different countries aroudn the world. This meant that there was an increase in employment and economic growth; the increase in goods and services provided by a country over time. Today, China has a GNI of $12 trillion dollars. This is because the TNCs such as Nike, Amazon and Apple produce goods and export them around the world which has resulted in China being the world’s largest export of goods. However, the limited environmental laws have caused an increase in air pollution as coal is burned for power in China. Furthermore, the Yangtze River is polluted with dye from nearby industry – 90% of water in Shanghai is undrinkable.


To conclude, there are other reforms that have contributed to China’s economic growth such as the one-child policy and commercial farming. In my opinion, the reforms made by China’s leaders in 1979 contributed to its economic growth, but not without consequences.